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Автореферати дисертацій arrow Історія. Історичні науки arrow Генезис тваринного запрягу в Україні (Культурно-історична проблема)
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Генезис тваринного запрягу в Україні (Культурно-історична проблема)

 Анотації

Глушко М. С. Генезис тваринного запрягу в Україні (Культурно-історична проблема). – Монографія.

Дисертація на здобуття наукового ступеня доктора історичних наук за спеціальністю 07.00.05 – Етнологія. – Інститут українознавства ім. І. Крип’якевича НАН України, Інститут народознавства НАН України, Львів, 2004.

   У дисертації на міждисциплінарному рівні досліджено функціональне використання вола і коня як тяглової сили в Україні, поетапний розвиток парного, одинарного й інших видів їх запрягу в сухопутних засобах пересування та знаряддях обробітку ріллі від доби енеоліту до XX ст. включно, конструкцію, форми, технологію виготовлення та способи застосування різних типів і варіантів тяглових, гальмівних і скеровуючих приладів, волової та кінної упряжі, відображення у традиційній обрядовості та світогляді українців конкретного функціонального використання робочої худоби в минулому тощо.
   Ключові слова: Україна, слов’яни, віл, кінь, запряг, генезис, тяглові засоби, упряж, транспорт, рільнича техніка.

Глушко М. С. Генезис запряжки животных в Украине (Культурно-историческая проблема). – Монография.

Диссертация на соискание ученой степени доктора исторических наук по специальности 07.00.05 – Етнология. – Институт украиноведения им. И. Крипьякевича НАН Украины, Институт народоведения НАН Украины, Львов, 2004.

   Диссертационное исследование представляет авторскую концепцию о возникновении и поэтапном развитии запряжки животных разных видов (вола и лошади) у сухопутных средствах транспорта и пахотных орудиях в эпоху энеолита – XX в. н. э. На основе археологических, исторических, этнографических, лингвистических и других источников особое внимание уделяется происхождению, истокам и конструкции различных типов и вариантов тягловых, направляющих и тормозящих средств, воловьей упряжи (парному и единичному ярмам), конской сбруе “нового” вида и прочему – конкретным свидетельствам возможного функционального применения мускульной силы этих животных у хозяйстве и быту населения Украины, Восточной и Центральной Европы вообще. Важное место занимают традицинные представления и верования о воле и лошади, семантика рабочего скота в календарной обрядности и фольклоре украинцев, других славян.
   Ключевые слова: Украина, славяне, вол, конь, запряжка, генезис, тягловые средства, упряжь, транспорт, землепашеская техника.

Hlushko M. S. The origin of animal harness in Ukraine (cultural-historical apporoach). – Monograph.

Thesis submitted for a scientific degree of the doctor of historical sciences on speciality 07.00.05 – Ethnology. – The I. Krypiakevych Institute of Ukrainian Studies, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ethnology Institute, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, 2004.

   The research is devoted to the origin and development of different types of ox and horse harness during the Eneolithic Period to XX c. in Ukraine and their constituents such as draught equipment, harness, connecting systems, which is the basic evidence of their industrial use as labour force. The work addresses the issue of the equipment construction, mainly means of land traffic to which these animals were harnessed.
   The documentary basis of the research consists of several kinds of the primary sources such as written and archeological documents, the descriptions of traffic carriers and tillage machinery, ox and horse harness done by the scholaks in XIX and the first half of XX cc., ethnographical material found by the author in different regions of Ukraine, linguistic and ethnic data. The comparative factual material on the draught animals harness by other Slavic peoples and their neighbors has been widely used to clarify the most controversial issues addressed.
   As far as scholaks hold widely differing views on the dating of the horse harness in Ukraine and in other Slavic countries, we have considered the quantitative ratio of working cattle in different historical periods and scientists’ views on its use in the industrial sphere.
   The qualitative characteristics and historical tendency to the functional application of oxen and horses are represented in the traditional ceremonies and world outlook of the Ukrainians. Having analysed the ethnographic and folkloric data of eastern, western and southern Slavs, the author has revealed that in the Ukrainian children’s carols the symbolic image of oxen (archaic in origin) can be found, which performs a ploughing function. Also the word horn can be traced which implies the very animal.
   The analysis of the factual material showed that till the beginning of XX c. the harness of the yoke of oxen had been most widely used in Ukraine dating back the Eneolithic Period. It served as the prototype of a pair or single kind of horse harness (in the Early Iron Age or Scythian). The numerous facts, esp. statistical ones revealed that one horse harness totally dominated among other kinds in XVI-XVII cc. The one-horse harness to wheeled and sleigh traffic was used mainly by the population of the forest zone of Ukraine – Polisia and historic-ethnographic Volhynia. According to the documents it has been ascertained that all types of ox and horse harness including a pair and single one were primarily used with land means of transportation.
   This was confirmed by the primary sources concerning draft equipment being the medium between the animal and working part of tools to which it was harnessed. Besides, at the end of XIX to 30s of XX c. the Ukrainians used two types of draft tools with land traffic such as in the form of triplet (for harnessing the yoke) and parallel thills. The triplet-shaft for the yoke was of two kinds made of one billet and of two separate parts. The Ukrainians called such an ox means by the word viya Indo-European in origin or by its dialectal variants. The second modification of the draft tool was of two kinds: with the fixed front end made of the two poles (in sleigh) connected by means of several horizontal pegs and a wooden collar-trap; with the moving front made of the thinner ends of the poles (in sleigh and carts) fixed by one crosscut peg. The first modification of the tool was called rozkip, ohlobli (shafts), dvoilo, also sporadically viya. The second one was called by the protoSlavic in origin lexeme ohlobli. The analysis of the ethnographic material showed that the ohlobli of the second model were of multi purpose as far as they could be used both for harnessing the yoke (in the form of triplet) and one ox or horse (in the form of parallel poles) due to their remade construction.
   The usage of a number of names to designate different types and modifications of draft tools implied not only the specificity of their construction but different coupling systems by means of which they were fixed to the running gear of land traffic.
   The aforementioned has been confirmed by the thorough analysis of the ox harness construction, namely a pair and single one, its constituent parts, the traditional ways of their coupling, the connecting to other draft tools, folk harness terminology, etc. Besides, in the late XIX – early XX cc. the Ukrainian peasants used three types of the pair horse-collar. The Polishchuks of the northern districts of Volhynia and Rivne regions, also the Olevsk district in Zhytomyr region used one of the most ancient horse-collars, namely the collar with natural crooked sticks (called kulbaky), which was the main type of harness in the ProtoSlavic Period. Thus, in the third-forth millenium AD the tribes of Cherniakhiv culture invented the new modification of collar with the straight under neck lath (called pidhorlytsya) and straight connecting sticks (called snozy), which gradually replaced the traditional one. Later the Western Slavs made another type of the collar on the basis of kulbaky collar – the collar with an inseparable bar (pidhorlytsya) and flat connecting small boards (called doshchechky), which replaced the ox harness of general Ukrainian type in Eastern Carpathians. The characteristic systems of their coupling to draft equipment and the coincidence of the regions of their spread with the areas of each type expansion has been confirmed by the author.
   The ProtoSlavic as well as the General Ukrainian modification of the pair collar served the basis of the two modifications of the single collar (so called bovkun), used by the Polishchuks in Ukraine. The analysis of the folk semantics of the term bovkun, the expansion areas of its key meanings (a single collar, one ox, etc.) in Polisia and Left-Bank Ukraine in XIX – 30s XX cc. allowed the author to restore the origin and the original object implied by the word, namely one-ox sleigh. It gave grounds for drawing the main conclusion, namely the one-ox harness was the prototype of the one-horse harness of the Eastern European type, but not otherwise. The single ox collar (with kulbaka) was the first ever harness fitted to a draught horse in Eastern Europe, which was also used by the tribes of Cherniakhiv culture. The primary semantics of the lexemes kobyla (mare), klyacha (jade), shkapa (jade) used to designate a female horse as a cart animal in Medieval Ukraine is the evidence of it while the word konъ would designate a male riding horse. All this simplifies our predecessors’ hypotheses that the horse as a draught animal was harnessed in the Eneolithic Period in Eastern Europe while the horse-collar was made on the basis of a packsaddle by the Asian tribes.
   Key words: Ukraine, Slavs, ox, horse, kinds of the harness, genesis, draught means, harness, means of land traffic, farming equipment.

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Генезис тваринного запрягу в Україні (Культурно-історична проблема)

 
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